Goddess traditions of the larger Levantine world may have somewhat similarly influenced the portrayals of other biblical women who are said to serve in leadership positions. The depictions of the judge and prophet Deborah found in Judges —23, for example, and of Jael found in Judges —27 are very reminiscent of depictions of the warrior goddess Anat found in Canaanite mythology.
As the first-wave feminist movement faded away in the United States, especially after women received the right to vote in , so too did the study of women in ancient Israel and in the Hebrew Bible. Not surprisingly, however, the emergence of second-wave feminism in the s inspired a resurgent interest in feminist biblical scholarship. These scholars, moreover, tended to follow the two basic methodologies that had been laid down by Trible and Bird in their and articles. Bird, conversely, put forward a more historically oriented analysis, asking what we can ascertain from Hebrew Bible texts regarding the actual lives and experiences of ancient Israelite women.
This sort of historically based approach tends also to incorporate a significant amount of extra-biblical data: archaeological data, for example, or information derived from comparing biblical traditions to traditions from the other cultures of the biblical world. Comparisons are also sometimes made with cultures outside the biblical world, whose political, social, and religious structures might seem analogous to those of the Israelites.
Newsom, Sharon H. Ringe, and Jacqueline E. Especially important are data derived from archaeological excavations of ancient Israelite sites and comparative data that come from the many peoples of the ancient Near Eastern and eastern Mediterranean worlds with whom the Israelites interacted and with whom, in many cases, the Israelites shared certain cultural conventions. Unfortunately, archaeological data are not often compiled with questions about women in mind, although some useful studies exist: Jennie R. Primary sources regarding women within the larger biblical world are also somewhat hard to find.
A recently published collection of historical and literary texts, focusing primarily on women in Mesopotamia, is Mark Chavalas, ed.
Similar collections for Greek tradition include Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant, eds.
A fair number of primary sources about women are also cited in the essays collected in Barbara S. Lesko, ed. Sasson, ed. The latest edition was published in Equally of note is William W. In neither work, however, is there a specific focus on gender. Ackerman, Susan.
Women in Ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible
ABRL New York: Doubleday, Find this resource:. Bird, Phyllis. Minneapolis: Fortress, Ebeling, Jennie.
Exum, J. Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. New York: Fawcett, Columbine, Hackett, Jo Ann. Atkinson, Constance H. Buchanan, and Margaret R. Miles, 15— Boston: Beacon, Marsman, Hennie J. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, Meyers, Carol. New York: Oxford University Press, Meyers, Carol, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Newsom, Carol A.
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Revised and updated. Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. OBT 2.
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Philadelphia: Fortress, OBT Vos, Clarence J. Woman in Old Testament Worship. Delft, The Netherlands: Judels and Brinkman, Barbara S. Karla G. Kraemer; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , 33— Victor H. Matthews, Bernard M. David C. Meyers ed.
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Susan Ackerman, Charles E. Avalos, Illness and Health Care , — Frederick H. Meyers, Households and Holiness , 38— For these population estimates, see William G.
Dever, Did God Have a Wife? King and Lawrence E. William G. Meyers, Rediscovering Eve , Studies in Honor of Eric M. Douglas R. Edwards and C. Rita P. Crete, the southwestern Peloponnese, the Magreb, and early 20th-century Ramallah. Paul T. Regarding Cyprus, see preeminently Gloria A. For discussion, with references, see Bernard M. Clarissa W. The court rejected defendants' arguments that it is impractical to verify a vehicle owner's military status and ruled that, "even if the defendants exercised the utmost care in investigating their victims' military status, they face liability for their actions.
On December 2, , the court entered a consent decree resolving United States v. Beaudet D. The Defendant, David R. Beaudet, has owned and managed numerous single-family rental homes throughout St. Paul since The complaint , filed February 19, , alleged that Beaudet subjected female tenants to severe, pervasive, and unwelcome sexual harassment.
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Biafora's Inc. Big D Enterprises, Inc. The United States had filed this case after a determination by the Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD] that reasonable cause existed to believe that the defendants refused to rent to an African American household.